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ANDROID

Image result for android version list

Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on the Linux kernel and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on the Linux kernel and designed primarily for touchscreenmobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Android’s user interface is mainly based on direct manipulation, using touch gestures that loosely correspond to real-world actions, such as swiping, tapping and pinching, to manipulate on-screen objects, along with a virtual keyboard for text input. In addition to touchscreen devices, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, and Android Wear for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are also used on game consolesdigital camerasPCs and other electronics.

1. Who is the founder of Android?

a) Andy Rubin

b) Rich Miner

c) Nick Sears

2. What is the Android technology?

Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on the Linux kernel and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. … As of May 2017, Android has two billion monthly active users, and it has the largest installed base of any operating system.

3. What are all the different versions of Android?

Image result for android version list

4. Which is the best version of Android?

This is your quick primer on the the different versions of Android that are still alive and kicking, from newest to oldest.
  • Android X.X Nougat (2016) …
  • Android 6.0 Marshmallow (late 2015) …
  • Android 5.0 Lollipop (late 2014) …
  • Android 4.4 KitKat (late 2013) …
  • Android 4.1-4.3 Jelly Bean (mid-2012)

5. What is Android SDK?

Android software development is the process by which new applications are created for the Android devices operating system. Applications are usually developed in Java programming language using the Android software development kit (SDK), but other development environments are also available.

The Android software development kit (SDK) includes a comprehensive set of development tools.These include a debuggerlibraries, a handset emulator based on QEMU, documentation, sample code, and tutorials. Currently supported development platforms include computers running Linux (any modern desktop Linux distribution), Mac OS X 10.5.8 or later, and Windows 7 or later. As of March 2015, the SDK is not available on Android itself, but software development is possible by using specialized Android applications.

Android Versions Names and Features

1. Android 1.1

Image result for android 1.1 banana bread

Android as the OS was born on the T-Mobile G1 which was extremely powerful for its time. This version of Android showcased its potential but it was best suited for early adopters and gadget freaks.

While the G1 couldn’t beat the iPhone sales in numbers and revenue, it offered some of the features key features of Android which we still find on our phones. Following are the features that came with it.

  • The Android Market was used as a single source of delivery for Android apps and contrary to Apple’s tight restrictions on the App Store, the Android Market served apps without any restrictions.
  • It came with the Android browser which made surfing the web fun.
  • It was the first version of Android to offer data syncing with Google.

 

2. Android 1.5 Cupcake

Image result for android 1.5 cupcakeIn the list of Android versions list comes Cupcake. Cupcake was the Android version which started the tasty treat naming tradition for Android releases.This was the very first major Android update and was released in May 2009. The most noticeable feature with Cupcake was the virtual keyboard support which paced the way for buttonless smartphones of the future. Following are the features that came with it.

 

  • It came with shortcuts and widgets on the home screen which allowed infinite ways to customize the home screen.
  • Video recording was added to the camera along with the ability to directly upload videos to YouTube.
  • The browser got a speed improvement along with copy-paste support.

 

3. Android 1.6 Donut

Image result for android 1.6 donut

Android 1.6 Donut was released in October of 2009. It offered a few major improvements. The biggest feature addition was the added support for CDMA which brought a whole new crowd to Android.

CDMA was the technology used by American mobile networks at the time. Following are the features that came with it.

  • It came with support for multiple screen resolutions and paved the way for Android devices of different screen sizes.
  • Google Maps Navigation was added with turn by turn satellite navigation support.
  • Donut included universal search feature which allowed us to pinpoint apps on the phone or searching the web.

4. Android 2.0 and 2.1 Eclair

Image result for android 2.0/2.1 eclair

There wasn’t a long wait after the release of Donut, for Eclair to be released. In fact, it was launched just a month after Donut in November of 2009.

Eclair 2.1 however, arrived in January 2010 with bug fixes and new APIs to play with. There weren’t any significant new additions in terms of features for users. Following are the features that came with it.

  • Multi-touch support was added to Android.
  • Web browser received a visual overhaul with a new address bar and thumbnails for a sneak peek.
  • Eclair brought a unified inbox to Android. Support for multiple Google accounts was added.
  • Support for searching within text messages.

5. Android 2.2 Froyo

 

Android Froyo was released in MImage result for android froyoay 2010.

The major update that came with Froyo was the addition of Flash. Following are the features that came with it.

  • Phone flash could be used in videos too.
  • Settings joined contacts and email in backing up to Google’s servers allowing you to automatically restore everything on a new device.
  • Enhanced Bluetooth compatibility with docks and car speakers.
  • Portable WiFi hotspot to share the device’s 3G connection with other gadgets.

 

6. Android 2.3 Gingerbread

Image result for android gingerbread

Gingerbread was released in 2010 but it wasn’t a release which made a lot of noise.

Main features included NFC support, SIP for Internet calling. Following are the features that came with it.

  • UI overhaul to avoid screen burn-in and improve battery life.
  • Front facing camera support for video calling.
  • Download manager for keeping an eye on your downloads.
  • Improved on-screen keyboard with shortcuts and a cursor to help with copy paste.

 

7. Android 3.0 and 3.1 Honeycomb

Image result for android honeycomb logo

This version of Android is the most disregarded of all. It was released specifically for tablets and never came to the phones.

Honeycomb was launched in May 2011 and it basically expanded Android to support big screens of tablets. Following are the features that came with it.

  • Several UI improvements to make use of the large screen.
  • Hardware buttons are dropped in favor of on-screen buttons.
  • Web browser introduced tabbed browsing.
  • Bigger and bolder widgets.
  • Apps like Gmail and YouTube were redesigned to make use of the large screen.

 

8. Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich

Image result for android ice cream sandwich logo

Ice Cream Sandwich (ICS) was the first Android version to be announced at the Google I/O conference in May 2011.

Although there was a long delay of around 7 months till anyone could use it because the Samsung Galaxy Nexus started shipping only in December. Following are the features that came with it.

  • The biggest redesign to Android with the Holo theme.
  • Faster smoother browsing experience.
  • Multi storage space for apps.
  • Face recognition for unlocking the phone.

 

 

9. Android 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3 Jellybean

Image result for android jelly

Jellybean was released in June 2012 and while the version number wasn’t a huge one, it added a lot of new features.

Following are the features that came with it.

  • Google Now, an assistant tool that displays relevant information based on your search history.
  • Project Butter to support higher frame rates while swiping through menus and home screens.
  • Ability to quickly view photos by swiping from the camera to go to the filmstrip.
  • Widgets realign themselves on adding new ones.
  • Richer notifications.
  • New gestures and accessibility features.

10. Android 4.4 KitKat

Image result for android kitkat

Android 4.4 KitKat was the last 4.x release and brought some major improvements both internally and visually to Android.

It was released in November of 2013. Following are the features that came with it.

  • Immersive mode for better content consumption.
  • Better navigation bar for getting in and out of Immersive mode.
  • Lock screen widgets support.
  • New dialer with Caller ID feature.
  • Full-screen wallpapers.
  • Emoji keyboard for emoticons.
  • Unified Hangouts and messaging app.
  • Better cloud print support.
  • Smarter, hands-free Google Now Integration.

 

11. Android 5.0 Lollipop

Image result for android lollipop

Android 5.0 Lollipop was announced at Google I/O in May 2014, and so far it’s been the biggest redesign for Android.

The biggest improvement that Lollipop brought was the introduction of Material Design which quickly became the unified design language implemented across Google products. Following are the features that came with it.

  • Better quick settings support.
  • Enhanced battery life with new Battery Saver mode.
  • New lock screen.
  • Smart Lock features via Google Play Services.
  • Guest mode for device sharing.
  • App pinning.

 

12. Android 6.0 Marshmallow

Image result for android marshmallow

While Lollipop was a big feature release, Marshmallow served the purpose of polishing out the rough corners and making the experience of Lollipop even better.

It was showcased at Google I/O in 2015. Following are the features that came with it.

  • Marshmallow came with Doze for better standby time.
  • Official fingerprint support for devices.
  • Support for mobile payments via Android Pay.
  • Better permissions model for apps.
  • Google Now on Tap.
  • Deep linking of Apps.

13. Android 7.0 Nougat

Image result for android nougat

This brings us to the last and most recent version of Android, and that is Android 7.0 Nougat.

Unlike others, Nougat was released way before Google I/O in the month of March 2016. It brought with it some significant improvements and features. Following are the features that came with it.

  • Doze on the Go for even better standby time.
  • Multi Window for using two apps at the same time.
  • Better Settings app.
  • Clear all in the recent apps screen.
  • Direct Reply to notifications.
  • Bundled notifications.
  •  Quick Settings toggles customization.

14. Android 8.0 Oero

Image result for android oreo

This brings us to the last and most recent version of Android, and that is Android 7.0 Nougat.

Unlike others, Nougat was released way before Google I/O in the month of March 2016. It brought with it some significant improvements and features. Following are the features that came with it.

  • Doze on the Go for even better standby time.
  • Multi Window for using two apps at the same time.
  • Better Settings app.
  • Clear all in the recent apps screen.
  • Direct Reply to notifications.
  • Bundled notifications.
  •  Quick Settings toggles customization.

 

Both Android and Android phone manufacturers have been involved in numerous patent lawsuits. On August 12, 2010, Oracle sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents related to the Java programming language. Oracle originally sought damages up to $6.1 billion, but this valuation was rejected by a United States federal judge who asked Oracle to revise the estimate. In response, Google submitted multiple lines of defense, counterclaiming that Android did not infringe on Oracle’s patents or copyright, that Oracle’s patents were invalid, and several other defenses. They said that Android’s Java runtime environment is based on Apache Harmony, a clean room implementation of the Java class libraries, and an independently developed virtual machine called Dalvik. In May 2012, the jury in this case found that Google did not infringe on Oracle’s patents, and the trial judge ruled that the structure of the Java APIs used by Google was not copyrightable.The parties agreed to zero dollars in statutory damages for a small amount of copied code. On May 9, 2014, the Federal Circuit partially reversed the district court ruling, ruling in Oracle’s favor on the copyrightability issue, and remanding the issue of fair use to the district court

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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